Sonoelastographic evaluation with the determination of compressibility ratio for symmetrical prostatic regions in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer

Artur Przewor1, Rafał Z. Słapa2, Wiesław S. Jakubowski2, Bartosz Migda2, Tadeusz Dmowski1
Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2014; 14: 130–141
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2014.0013

Aim: Sonoelastography is a technique that assesses tissue hardness/compressibility. Utility and sensitivity of the method in prostate cancer diagnostics were assessed compared to the current gold standard in prostate cancer diagnostics i.e. systematic biopsy. Material and methods: The study involved 84 patients suspected of prostate cancer based on elevated PSA levels or abnormal per rectal examination findings. Sonoelastography was used to evaluate the prostate gland. In the case of regions with hardness two-fold greater than that of symmetric prostate area (strain ratio >2), targeted biopsy was used; which was followed by an ultrasound-guided 8- or 10-core systematic biopsy (regardless of sonoelastography-indicated sites) as a reference point. Results: The mean age of patients was 69 years. PSA serum levels ranged between 1.02 and 885 ng/dl. The mean prostate volume was 62 ml (19–149 ml). Prostate cancer was found in 39 out of 84 individuals. Statistically significant differences in strain ratios between cancers and benign lesions were shown. Sonoelastography guided biopsy revealed 30 lesions – overall sensitivity 77% (sensitivity of the method – 81%). Sonoelastographic sensitivity increased depending on cancer stage according to the Gleason grading system: 6–60%, 7–75%, 8–83%, 9/10–100%. The estimated sensitivity of systematic biopsy was 92%. Conclusions: Sonoelastography shows higher diagnostic sensitivity in prostate cancer diagnostics compared to conventional imaging techniques, i.e. grey-scale TRUS, Doppler ultrasound. It allows to reduce the number of collected tissue cores, and thus limit the incidence of complications as well as the costs involved. Sonoelastography using the determination of compressibility ratio for symmetrical prostatic regions may prove useful in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

prostate cancer, core needle biopsy, sonoelastography