Standards in neurosonology. Part III
Joanna Wojczal1, Tomasz Tomczyk2, Piotr Luchowski1, Grzegorz Kozera3, Radosław Kaźmierski4, Zbigniew Stelmasiak1
1 Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
2 Stroke Department, Regional Hospital in Poznań, Poland
3 Department of Neurology of Adults, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland
4 Department of Neurology and Vascular Diseases of the Nervous System, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland
Correspondence: Joanna Wojczal, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin, Poland, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).