Standards for scrotal ultrasonography
Janusz F. Tyloch1, Andrzej Paweł Wieczorek2
1 Department of Urology, Department of Urology and Urological Oncology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland
2 Department of Pediatric Radiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Correspondence: Professor Andrzej Paweł Wieczorek, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Medical University of Lublin, Professor A. Gębala 6 Street, 20-093 Lublin, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper presents a description of essential equipment requirements for scrotal ultrasonography, including current ultrasound techniques, as well as a review of the most common scrotal pathologies. Patient preparation for the examination as well as ultrasound methodology for the assessment of scrotal and inguinal canal structures are discussed. The standard for scrotal ultrasound examination includes a precise B-mode evaluation, including testicular volumetric assessment performed using automatic measurement options based on the formula of a rotating ellipsoid or three measurements perpendicular to one another. Also, criteria for morphological assessment of abnormalities within testicular or epididymal parenchyma, including a precise evaluation of lesion size, delineation, shape and vascular pattern obtained with Doppler US, have been proposed. Standard assessment further includes epididymal evaluation, including epididymal size in the case of enlargement. The paper additionally discusses the method of ultrasonographic examination and describes the most common pathologies occurring within scrotal structures, including a quantitative analysis of hydrocele and other abnormal fluid reservoirs. We have also presented criteria for the assessment of varicocele as well as color and spectral Doppler flows in scrotal pathologies. Furthermore, we have proposed key components of scrotal ultrasound documentation, so that the contained data could be used to establish appropriate diagnosis, allowing for both adequate clinical management and the reproducibility of subsequent US evaluations performed by either the same or a different examiner. The most common causes of diagnostic errors have also been discussed.