Background: Peripheral arterial disease is an atherosclerotic disease characterized by an increase in morbidity and mortality. For these reasons early diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease is important. Ankle-brachial systolic pressure index measurement is frequently used in screening studies. Evaluating waveforms of distal lower extremities with Doppler ultrasound can be used as a screening program and provides more accurate information on peripheral arterial disease. Aim: We investigate the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, compare the efficacy of Doppler ultrasound evaluation of distal lower extremity waveforms and ankle-brachial systolic pressure index measurement in screening programs, and discuss the importance of early diagnosis of asymptomatic cases. Material and methods: A total of 457 patients over the age of 65 (between 65 and 94, mean age: 71.4) including 270 males and 187 females were examined with Doppler ultrasound, had ankle-brachial systolic pressure index measurement taken and were screened for peripheral arterial disease. The correlation between Doppler ultrasound findings and ankle-brachial systolic pressure index was examined. Results: According to the Doppler ultrasound findings, in the aortoiliac (r = 0.648) and femoropopliteal (r = 0.564) area, there is a medium level of correlation between severe stenosis and occlusions and a low ankle-brachial systolic pressure index value, and a low level of correlation between such abnormalities in the tibioperoneal region (r = 0.116) and a low ankle-brachial systolic pressure index value. Therefore, while the sensitivity of ankle-brachial systolic pressure index increases in proximal stenosis, it decreases in distal stenosis. Conclusion: Despite the fact that ankle-brachial systolic pressure index is a diagnostic test commonly used in screening studies, evaluation of distal arteries by means of Doppler ultrasound provides more accurate information in terms of the identification of peripheral arterial disease.