A blood-mimicking fluid with cholesterol as scatter particles for wall-less carotid artery phantom applications
Kyermang Kyense Dakok1, Mohammed Zubir Matjafri1, Nursakinah Suardi1, Ammar Anwar Oglat2, Seth Ezra Nabasu3
1 Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Science, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
2 Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
3 Department of Physics, Plateau State University Bokkos, P.O Box 2012, Plateau Sate, Nigeria
Correspondence: Prof. Mohammed Zubir Matjafri, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Aim of the study: At present, there are few scatter particles used in preparing blood-mimicking fluids, such as nylon, sephadex, polystyrene microsphere, and poly(4-methystyrene). In this study, we present cholesterol as a new scatter particle for blood-mimicking fluid preparation. Materials and methods: The procedure for the preparation of the proposed blood-mimicking fluid involved the use of propylene glycol, D(+)-Glucose and distilled water to form a ternary mixture fluid, with cholesterol used as scatter particles. Polyethylene glycol was first used as part of the mixture fluid but the acoustic and physical properties were not suitable, leading to its replacement with D(+)-Glucose, which is soluble in water and has a higher density. A common carotid artery wall-less phantom was also produced to assess the flow properties. Results: The prepared blood-mimicking fluid with new scatter particles has a density of 1.067 g/cm3, viscosity of 4.1 mPa.s, speed of sound 1600 m/s, and attenuation of 0.192 dB/cm at 5 MHz frequency. Peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and mean velocity measurements were gotten to be 40.2 ± 2.4 cm/s, 9.9 ± 1.4 cm/s, and 24.0 ± 1.8 cm/s, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, the blood-mimicking fluid was found suitable for ultrasound applications in carotid artery wall-less phantoms because of its good acoustic and physical properties.