Diagnostic value of shear wave velocity in polycystic ovarian syndrome

Turkan Gursu1, Halime Cevik2, Güldeniz Aksan Desteli3, Birnur Yilmaz2, Tevfik Berk Bildaci3, Alper Eraslan4

Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2021; 21: e277–e281
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2021.0047

Aim: In polycystic ovarian syndrome, the ovaries become stiffer due to chronic anovulation. We aimed to compare tissue elasticity in terms of shear wave velocities measured using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging technique between the ovaries of polycystic ovarian syndrome women and non-polycystic ovarian syndrome women. Material and methods: The study was designed as a retrospective data analysis of women who underwent transvaginal ultrasound and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in a university hospital between July 2014 and March 2015, for various reasons. There were 32 polycystic ovarian syndrome patients and 32 patients without a diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Age, body mass index, fasting glucose levels, cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, antimullerian hormone levels, and menstrual patterns with clinical hyperandrogenism were evaluated. On the menstrual cycle days 2–4, by performing a transvaginal ultrasound scan, the ovarian volumes and antral follicle counts in both ovaries were recorded for each woman. The ultrasound system was converted into the elastography mode, and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging was performed. Shear wave velocity (m/sec) was measured at least 5 times for each ovary, and the mean value was calculated for each polycystic ovarian syndrome and non-polycystic ovarian syndrome woman. Results: Age, body mass index, fasting glucose levels, cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and prolactin levels were similar between the groups (p >0,05). Antimullerian hormone levels, antral follicle counts, and mean ovarian volumes were statistically different between the groups (p <0,05). Mean shear wave velocity values for both ovaries were 2.12 ± 0.82 (0.78–4.9) m/sec in the polycystic ovarian syndrome group, and 1.18 ± 0.41 (0.77–2.0) m/sec in the non-polycystic ovarian syndrome group, which was statistically significantly different (p = 0.016). Conclusion: In our study, we found significantly higher shear wave velocity levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome women than non-polycystic ovarian syndrome women, which indicates an impact of the condition on shear wave velocity. The increased acoustic frequencies cause a decreased response in time to transition, and motion becomes out of phase; in other words, scattered waves are faster in stiffer ovaries. Our results are thus compatible with the pathophysiology of the disease. Shear wave velocity is a beneficial tool for evaluating ovarian elasticity in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients in whom the levels are found to be significantly higher than non-polycystic ovarian syndrome women. In light of these findings, shear wave velocity is expected to be slower than polycystic ovarian syndrome levels in ovulatory women.

acoustic radiation force impulse imaging; elastography; polycystic ovarian syndrome; shear wave velocity; ultrasonography