The role of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in the management of renal cell carcinoma with atrial thrombus – case report
Maciej Łukasz Trzciniecki1, Wiktor Bursiewicz1, Monika Trzciniecka2, Krystian Mączka3, Mikołaj Legieć3, Jakub Sobieraj3, Paweł Kowal1
1 Department of Urology and Urological Oncology, Provincial Specialist Hospital, Wroclaw Poland
2 Faculty of Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Medical University in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
3 Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
Corresponding author: Maciej Łukasz Trzciniecki, Department of Urology and Urological Oncology, Provincial Specialist Hospital, H. M. Kamieńskiego 73a, 51-124, Wrocław, Poland; e-mail: email@example.com
Renal cell carcinoma is a common disease, and clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most common histological type. Renal cell carcinoma has a tendency to infiltrate the venous system including the inferior vena cava and the right atrium of the heart. We present the cases of two patients with renal cell carcinoma with stage IV tumor thrombus according to the Mayo classification, who underwent surgery under transesophageal echocardiography guidance. Apart from standard imaging methods used in renal cancer with tumor thrombus reaching the right atrium of the heart, we consider transesophageal echocardiography to be a very useful tool in the diagnostic work-up, patient monitoring, and selection of appropriate surgical technique.