Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: underestimated cause of hypotension and hemodynamic instability

Dorota Sobczyk

Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2014; 14: 421–427
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2014.0044
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Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, which is typically associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is the third most frequent cause of unexplained hypotension. This underestimated problem may temporarily accompany various diseases (it is found in even <1% of patients with no tangible cardiac disease) and clinical situations (hypovolemia, general anesthesia). It is currently assumed that left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a dynamic phenomenon, the occurrence of which requires the coexistence of predisposing anatomic factors and a physiological condition that induces it. The diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction should entail immediate implementation of the therapy to eliminate the factors that can potentially intensify the obstruction. Echocardiography is the basic modality in the diagnosis and treatment of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. This paper presents four patients in whom the immediate implementation of bedside echocardiography enabled a rapid diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and implementation of proper treatment.

dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, hypotension, hemodynamic instability echocardiography, systolic anterior motion (SAM)