Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska1,2, Michał Znajdek1, Piotr Gietka3, Violeta Vasilevska-Nikodinovska4,5, Lukas Patrovic6, Vladka Salapura7

Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2017; 17: 176–181
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2017.0026
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Juvenile spondyloarthropathies are mainly manifested by symptoms of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Early involvement of sacroiliac joints and spine is exceptionally rare in children; this usually happens in adulthood. Conventional radiographs visualize late inflammatory lesions. Early diagnosis is possible with the use of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the article presented classifications and radiographic presentation of juvenile spondyloarthropathies. This part discusses changes seen on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance also shows subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging do not show specific lesions for any rheumatic disease. Nevertheless, they are conducted for early diagnosis, treatment monitoring and identifying complications. This article presents a spectrum of inflammatory changes and discusses the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

juvenile spondyloarthropathies, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging