High-resolution ultrasound in the evaluation of the adult hip

Linda Probyn1, Dyan Flores2, Emma Rowbotham3, Mark Cresswell4, Angela Atinga1

Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2023; 23: e223–e238
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2023.0031
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This paper reviews ultrasound of the hip, which is a commonly requested examination for symptomatic hip issues. This includes both intra-articular and extra-articular causes of hip pain. Ultrasound is easily accessible, lacks radiation exposure, and allows for evaluation of the contralateral hip as well as assessment of dynamic maneuvers. Ultrasound can be used to guide interventional procedures. Ultrasound of the hip can be challenging due to the deep location of structures and complex anatomy. Typically, high-frequency transducers are used to examine the hip, however the choice of ultrasound transducer depends on the patient’s body habitus, with lower frequency transducers required to penetrate deep structures in obese patients. It is important to have an approach to ultrasound of the hip which includes assessment of the anterior, lateral, posterior, and medial aspects of the hip. The technique and relevant anatomy of each of these compartments are discussed as well as the use of Doppler examination of the hip. Several dynamic maneuvers can be performed to help determine the cause of hip pathology in various locations, and these are described and illustrated. Ultrasound is useful for guided procedures about the hip, and these indications will be reviewed.

ultrasound; hip joint; hip anatomy; dynamic ultrasound; hip pathology