Uterine vascular abnormalities linked to pregnancy complications: color and power Doppler assisted transvaginal ultrasound evaluation

Ashraf Talaat Youssef

Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2024; 24: 11
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2024.0011
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Aim: Abnormal uterine vascular pattern can be observed during transvaginal ultrasound examination used for investigating post-abortion bleeding and secondary postpartum hemorrhage. The purpose of this series of cases was to evaluate almost all the rare causes of uterine vascular abnormalities linked to pregnancy complications, and determine how to arrive at the diagnosis to optimize patient management, which is crucial for preventing life-threatening massive vaginal bleeding. Material and methods: Retrospective observational case series study including 20 women with postpartum or post-abortion vaginal bleeding who were found to have an abnormal uterine vascular pattern during a transvaginal color duplex assessment. Results: The study yielded the following findings: 10 cases of enhanced myometrial vascularity, two cases of pseudoaneurysm in the uterine artery, one case of myometrial venous varix, one case of large uterine venous pseudoaneurysm, one case of uterine arteriovenous malformation, one case of retained placental polyp, one case of invasive vesicular mole, and three cases of subinvolution of the placental implantation site. Conclusions: Transvaginal color duplex ultrasound plays a crucial role in detecting uterine vascular abnormalities as a cause of post-abortion or secondary postpartum hemorrhage and can help differentiate the pathologies responsible for the abnormal vascular pattern, which is highly recommended to optimize patient management.

uterine artery pseudoaneurysm; uterine venous varix; uterine arteriovenous malformation; enhanced myometrium vascularity; hypervascular retained parts of conception